A Software defect or bug is a condition in a software product which does not meet a software requirement or end-user expectation.
What is a Software Defect
A software bug or defect arises when the expected result do not match with the actual results. It can also be error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program. Most bugs arise from mistakes and errors made by developers, architects.
Common Types of Defects
It include the defects made by the developer in some arithmetic expression or mistake in finding solution of such arithmetic expression. This type of defects are basically made by the programmer due to access work or less knowledge.
Logical defects refer to missing, inadequate or irrelevant or ambiguous functionality in source code.
A syntax error is an error in the source code of a program. For example, a missing semicolon at the end of a line or an extra bracket at the end of a function may produce a syntax error.
Multi-threaded programs allow the execution of multiple parts of a program at the same time. These parts are known as threads and are lightweight processes available within the process. Threads improve the application performance using parallelism.
Interface defects are bugs found on the user interface. It may cause changes in colors on the display, distorted, images, and many more.
Performance defects are programming errors that cause significant performance degradation, They lead to poor user experience and low system throughput. Designing effective techniques to address performance bugs requires a deep understanding of how performance bugs are discovered, reported, and fixed.
Software Defects Categories
Severity defines the defect’s degree of impact. These reflect the degree or intensity of a particular defect. Likewise its impact on its software product or its working. Severity defines the degree of impact. Thus, defect’s severity reflects the degree or intensity of a particular defect. Hence, to impact a software product or its working, adversely.
- Critical: The defects termed as ‘critical’, needs immediate attention and treatment. A critical defect directly affects the critical and essential functionalities. Which may affect a software product or its functionality on a large scale. Such as failure of a feature/functionality or the whole system, system crash-down, etc.
- Major: Defects, which are responsible for affecting the core and major functionalities of a software product. These defects do not result into complete failure of a system. But may bring several major functions of a software, to rest.
- Minor: These defects produces minor impact, and does not have any significant influence on a software product. However, it does not stops users to execute it task.
- Trivial: These types of defects, have no impact on the working of a product. And sometimes, it is ignored and hence, skipped. Such as spelling or grammatical mistake.
Software defects are also categorized on their probability to occur in the software or being encountered by the user.
One more angle to see a defect in a software application is on the basis of its probability to occur. Based on the likelihood or the possibility of a defect in a software product in terms of percentage, it may be classified into following forms:
- High: Signifies the high probability of getting traced out by almost all the users of the application.
- Medium: Half of the users are able to trace out the defects presence in a software product.
- Low: Generally, not detected any user or may be detected only few numbers of user.
Defects could also be seen from the business perspective. As which defects needs to be corrected first. And which may be fixed at a later stage, based on the current need and demand of the business.
- High: High priority defines the foremost need of a business. Hence to correct a defect, as soon as possible, in the same build.
- Medium: Medium priority defects comes next to that of high priority.
- Low: These types of defects, does not needs to be individually corrected.
A defect or bug is flaw in any software system. It can cause the software system to fail to perform what its actually supposed to perform. Hence, due to the mistake made by the person creating that software work product. For instance, software requirements, design documents (High Level Design/Detailed Design), Test Plan, Test Scripts, Software Code etc.